Friday, 30 October 2015

Just Some Thoughts

The suppression of nuclear technology is preventing the colonization of the solar system. It also means that energy wars being fought are all for nothing. It means that people die all over the world from being denied access to electricity. The wonders of refrigeration, air conditioning and heating have the power to save lives. So many people in the exploited areas of the American Empire known as the "Third World" die from lack of such "luxuries." The American Ruling Class is truly evil for what they are doing.

Wednesday, 21 October 2015

DID THE SR-71 HAVE A THIRD RAM ROCKET ENGINE OR A RAM-ROCKET VARIANT?

"I was accused of making a Mach 3 Ford Trimotor - that was made all of corrugated aluminum." 
-Kelly Johnson. page 140,  More Than My Share of It All

This ram-rocket was the boaster that put the M-21 into orbit. 



Sunday, 18 October 2015

STEALTH SPACE SHUTTLE


THE SPACE SHUTTLE COULD BE MODIFIED TO THE SPECS OF THE GASEOUS POWERED ASPEN/SPACECRAFT








I believe that the United State Military operated a modified Space Shuttle out of AREA-51. The dimensions are roughly the same. The Shuttle could be configured to be a Bussard ASPEN spaceplane.

WAS THE KH-9 AN ANTI-SUBMARINE WARFARE WEAPON?

Information declassified in 2011 showed that the Space Shuttle payload bay was designed specifically to accommodate the KH-9 HEXAGON spy satellite operated by the National Reconnaissance Office. Guillemette, Roger (September 20, 2011). "Declassified US Spy Satellites Reveal Rare Look at Secret Cold War Space Program". Yahoo! News. Retrieved 2012-04-17.





The interesting thing about having a satellite based anti-submarine warfare (ASW) system is that in some preemptive strike scenarios parts of, if not all of, the U.S. naval fleet at sea will be sacrificed. The historical moves of the Soviet submarine fleet indicates they used the American fleet as a human shield from American ASW satellites. The Soviets built titanium hulled, magnetic influence detection resistant, submarines that could dive deeper than their American counterparts, allowing them to shadow the American fleet detectable only by the KH-9. This would be particularly useful in terms of defense because it puts American command and control in the dilemma of having to wipe out their own fleet in order to conduct a pre-emptive strike. 

To create this dilemma the Soviet Union built two new classes of submarines. The deeper diving, titanium hulled, Alfa-class submarine and the Delta Class SLBM, designed to hide from satellite detection under the ice of the North Pole. Both classes of submarine paralleled the development of the KH-9 satellite system. 

For instance, if you have Soviet submarines shadowing a carrier task force or American submarines and they are beneath the task force. In a preemptive strike scenario where a simultaneous attack is launched against all enemy nuclear assets American ships will have to be sacrificed. This would be a presidential decision. The KH-9 ASW satellite is not communicating with the U.S. Navy. This information if disseminated to naval commanders would change their behaviors and telegraph American intent to foreign navies. So, they have to be out of loop. This is similar situation that the British were in during World War Two with ENIGMA. They had to sacrifice some convoys in order to preserve the intelligence gathered by Bletchley Park. In much the same way the President will have to sacrifice parts of, if not the whole U.S. fleet at sea of the American Navy in order to conduct a preemptive strike. 

The Space Shuttle payload bay was designed to accommodate the KH-9. This was Nuclear Thermal Rocket version of the Shuttle launched via a modified Shuttle Carrier Aircraft from Area-51. This is what serviced the KH-9 weapons system. Air launch is vital for satellite intercept. Which is why it was used to service the KH-9.

The Soviet Union's use of noisy diesel powered submarines also suggests that they were baiting U.S. Navy into intercepting them. This would also be a useful move to turn the U.S. Fleet into a human shield. 

It is also the case that this system utilizes information gathered from the American SOSUS sonar system to help find targets. This system is going to be vital to monitor submarine movements under the polar ice caps. Which means that even the strategy of going under the pole can be defeated. 


http://www.atimes.com/atimes/China/LE13Ad01.html

US satellites shadow China's submarines
By Peter J Brown 

The People's Liberation Army's Navy (PLAN) submarines cannot spot United States satellites high overhead as the submarines leave their bases at Sanya on Hainan Island, Qingdao in Shandong province and Ningbo in Zhejiang province, and head for deeper water. 

Plenty of very deep water can be found in the South China Sea, especially in the zone north of the Spratly Islands, east of the Paracels, and south of the Luzon Strait. 

"A more challenging area for submarines to operate undetected is the East China Sea, which is quite shallow from the Chinese coastline up to the Okinawa Trough with a depth of only 30 to 60 fathoms [180 to 360 feet] in most places," said associate professor Peter Dutton with the China Maritime Studies Institute at the US Naval War College. 
  

"Much of the water space [in the South China Sea] is more than 2,000 fathoms deep," said Dutton. 

Detecting submarines via satellite is a form of Non-Acoustic Anti-Submarine Warfare (NAASW). Lasers, infrared and other detectors and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) in space may be used as part of this NAASW activity. Satellites might see subtle undersea disturbances caused by submarines, watch wave patterns on or beneath the sea surface, or detect subtle variations in ocean temperature. 

This is not to be confused with satellite communications, nor is an "EO" or "Earth Observation" satellite to be confused with "EO" as in an "Electro-Optical" means of detecting submarines. 

Over the next 18 months, the US National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) - operator of the US spy satellite fleet - is planning multiple satellite launches, and China must assume that one or more of these new US surveillance satellites will help support US Navy efforts to locate and track PLAN submarines. 

Satellites form a network along with undersea sensors and detectors fixed on the sea floor or drifting in the open ocean as well as devices mounted on other submarines, ships, unmanned undersea vehicles (UUVs), aircraft, helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). 

Many are skeptical that satellites can perform NAASW missions effectively, reliably and at reasonable cost. 

"The natural disturbances of the sea surface due to wind and tides, it seems to me, are very likely to mask any disturbance due to a submarine passage, and so even if this were a viable detection technique, it seems to me so limited in application that it would not be worth the investment," said one former US Navy sonar expert. 

In April, a source told RIA Novosti, a Russian newspaper, that Russia had developed a novel satellite module "used for both defense and civilian purposes, in particular, providing meteorological data", and it can "carry out remote sensing of the sea and detect submerged submarines". This will be tested in space perhaps as early as next year. [1] 

"Submarine detection, by any means, is a classified and highly guarded topic. The fact that the Russians are talking about it is the most interesting aspect of this announcement," said Brian Whitehouse, president of Nova Scotia-based OEA Technologies, Inc. He co-authored a paper with Daniel Hutt in 2008 about spaceborne sensors, ocean intelligence, and the maritime battlespace. [2] 

The satellite in question is apparently the first of three small Russian Kanopus (Konopus) remote sensing satellites. 

"This satellite is planned for 2011 and it will carry an Earth observing payload that includes a sensor for studying the underwater light environment," said Dr Jonathan McDowell, an astrophysicist at the Massachusetts-based Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics who is also the editor of Jonathan's Space Report. "I cannot evaluate the claim that this will let them detect the wakes of submarines. I do not believe that such technology is being used operationally at the moment. I am not aware of relevant flight experiments, but they may have occurred." 

Russia has previously demonstrated its satellite sub-hunting skills. Swedish satellite expert Sven Grahn identified the Russian Almaz-1 satellite which was launched in 1991 as a submarine-detection satellite that could see the surface wake or trail of a submerged sub. Besides this satellite, the Russians deployed other large, nuclear-powered and radar-equipped ocean surveillance satellites. 

"Russian satellites known as RORSATs used radar to track surface ships, but the US Navy was not concerned that our subs could be detected, much less tracked. The signals, even if they existed, would be so wrapped into random noise that extracting any usable intelligence from them proved impossible," author James Oberg, a top US expert on Soviet and Russian space programs, told Asia Times Online. "The cancellation of that [Soviet] satellite program followed at least three accidental re-entries of debris. The laws of physics compelled them to orbit as low as possible, creating high air drag." 

The theoretical boundary below which satellites cannot successfully maintain their orbits is approximately 160 kilometers above the Earth. 

The Soviet space station Mir may have served as a platform for related research activities in the same way that the US Skylab once served as a platform for space radar testing in 1970s. 

In the late 1990s, sub-hunting satellites made headlines. An American scientist, Peter Lee, was caught and convicted of passing sensitive information to China about the so-called Radar Ocean Imaging (ROI) joint project which involved the United K and the US. A decision by the US Navy based on concerns about further disclosures about the nature and scope of the ROI project echoes to this day. 

"Peter Lee's case was they had this guy giving this very sensitive data to the Chinese on underwater detection of submarines. They ran into this case where the navy wouldn't allow a court case against him because of the data. So they had a bargain plea, and he got off, basically. For stealing very high-level stuff, he gets probably, what, a couple of months in a halfway house," former US ambassador to China, James Lilley, told PBS in 2004. [3] 

China obtained relevant information from Russia, too. 

"Chinese experts reportedly received technical assistance from Russian satellite experts in years following the Soviet Union's collapse," said associate professor Andrew Erickson at the China Maritime Studies Institute. "Specialists at the State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environmental Dynamics have researched ship detection using [SAR]." 

Maritime surveillance became a top priority at the national level when China's so-called, "863 State High-Technology Development Plan" was activated. And China's fleet of Haiyang ocean surveillance satellites will grow to three when Haiyang-2A is launched later this year 

Prior to the ROI program, the US SEASAT ocean satellite project which was launched by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in 1978 carried a SAR into space for maritime surveillance purposes. After just over 100 days in space, SEASAT suddenly stopped working due to a short circuit in the design of its solar panels. 

"Rumors suggested it had been turned off or sabotaged. There was a claim that SEASAT had mapped a field of World War 2-era shipwrecks on the floor of the English Channel," said Oberg. 

A US Navy oceanographer from Australia, Paul Scully-Power, who became the first oceanographer in space, flew on the space shuttle Challenger (STS - 41G) in 1984. The US Navy later admitted that the mission had successfully detected the undersea or internal waves generated by a submarine which had been tracked successfully at relatively shallow depths. This was deemed, "incredibly important to us" and was reported by the Washington Post in 1985 - quoting a senior US Navy admiral at the time. [4] 

In mid-May, by the way, the final flight of the space shuttle Atlantis (STS-132) will include a longtime submariner, US Navy captain Stephen Bowen. 

According to naval analyst and author Norman Polmar, certain satellites can track submarine wakes, but are unable to do so continuously nor all the time, and not in all underwater environments. A submarine's depth, and speed along with the characteristics of the ocean bottom and water clarity, among other things, come into play here. 

"A submarine is a relatively small, finite object - perhaps 300 to

  

500 feet [91 meters to 152 meters] in length in most cases - but the submarine's wake is persistent and stretches out for miles," said Polmar. 

While the PLAN submarine fleet is the largest and most diverse in Asia, and very soon the fastest growing in the world, the PLAN's nuclear submarines are relatively easy to find. It is the diesel/electric submarines - and those equipped with so-called air-independent propulsion systems in particular - that are much harder to detect. 

"The US Office of Naval Intelligence's unclassified July 2009 report on the PLAN suggests that some of the PLAN's diesel submarines are already extremely quiet, but its nuclear submarines remain relatively noisy," said Erickson. 

US satellites play an increasingly important communications role in ASW, and are critical to the US Navy's Persistent Littoral Undersea Surveillance Network (PLUSNet), ForceNet and Sea Shield programs, to name a few. In addition, the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is funding the Tactical Relay Information Network which uses lasers to instantly beam vital messages to submerged US subs as they are underway and perhaps chasing down other subs. 

This writer speculates that as many as a dozen countries have operated sensors aboard satellites involved in some form of NAASW research. Others may disagree with this assessment. 

Whitehouse and Hutt, for example, stated that, "many of these sensors are not of immediate practical benefit to military operations". 

Keep in mind that commercial satellite ventures, and public - private partnerships such as Germany's RapidEye AG offer all sorts of satellite imagery. 

Smaller, less expensive satellites possibly flying in formation over the ocean may offer significant advantages here. They can train their sensors and cameras on a single spot as they pass by in formation. California-based Microcosm Inc, for example, is developing the NanoEye small-satellite system, which comes equipped with basic or advanced electro-optical and infrared sensor payloads. 

"Smaller satellites flying in formation may seem attractive for reasons of cost and coverage, but larger satellites offer far more advantages in terms of real capabilities," said Polmar. "Simply because of their small size, the smaller satellites are less capable, offer less electrical power and you cannot put much on them unlike much larger satellites." 

The real advantage comes from the entire satellite-enabled infrastructure - or systems of systems - which links the powerful space-based sensors and detectors with those mounted on surrounding ships, subs, UUVs, aircraft, helicopters and UAVs - including the new "Sea Avenger" - so that all this surveillance data merges together to form a "common undersea picture" which can be instantly shared across the entire ASW community. 

Aircraft and UAVs lingering overhead can mimic surveillance satellites, and their presence is an important aspect of the US "Maritime Domain Awareness" strategy. Another option involves inserting additional maritime surveillance assets above conventional aircraft and UAVs, and beneath the satellites. 

For example, the US Navy is interested in DARPA's "Integrated Sensor Is the Structure" (ISIS) program, which is, in effect, an integrated stratospheric airship/radar - the stratosphere is found at an altitude of roughly 10 to 50 kilometers above Earth - featuring a 600-kilometer-wide sensor radius. In fact, DARPA included a slide during a briefing last year that showed how a single ISIS on station over the Luzon Strait could conduct surveillance operations covering the entire Strait from Taiwan to the northern Philippines, and almost as far west almost as the coast of China. 

"No single sensor/platform combination has all the answers. Every sensor has its limitations. As a result, each application usually involves a suite of sensors, platforms and computer-based models," said Whitehouse and Hutt. 

Associate professor Kazuto Suzuki of Hokkaido University's Public Policy School described Japan's Maritime Self Defense Force (MSDF) as "one of the best ASW forces without using satellite capability". 

"There is no discussion of a satellite infrastructure for ASW. Satellites are only useful for detecting activities [at submarine bases]. MSDF and the 7th Fleet of the US Navy are sharing the work for ASW, and there is a strong confidence between them," said Suzuki. 

However, over the years, Japan has launched many advanced remote sensing/earth observation, meteorological, and engineering test satellites - exactly the types of satellites which are ideally suited for conducting satellite-based NAASW research and development. 

One relevant joint NASA-Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency project on the International Space Station recently tested a maritime hyperspectral imager. This coincided with work on the same type of imager done as part of the US Navy's Tactical Space Innovative Naval Prototype program involving so-called TacSats and their maritime satellite links to buoys and "unattended" sensors - perhaps UUV-mounted sensors. 

China routinely uses ocean-centric satellite imagery provided by the US, Japanese and Europeans. Their own undersea mapping projects such as one done recently as part of a larger and more comprehensive Chinese survey of the South China Sea rely heavily on access to this data. [5] 

The world's vast oceans have not been rendered completely transparent, but for over three decades, satellites have been transforming the way we view them. 

As the US Congress scrutinizes the US-Russian START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty) successor and possible restrictions on the future use of US submarine launch tubes for anti-missile purposes, new potential threats to submarines need to be examined carefully. 

Finally, the sinking in March 2010 of the South Korean destroyerCheonan - important evidence in the form of "satellite imagery" is surfacing although the investigation is still underway [6] - serves to remind everyone that work must continue to help thwart future surprise attacks. 

Notes
1. Russia to build submarine-detecting satellite, RIA NOVOSTI, Apr 15, 2010. 
2. Ocean intelligence in the maritime battlespace: the role of spaceborne sensors and hf radar, Canadian Military Journal, July 14, 2008. 
3. PBS interviews James Lilley, PBS.org, June 4, 2003. 
4. "Shuttle Flight Yields Data on Hiding Subs," The Washington Post, March 22, 1985, p A10. (Not available online.) 
5. Using satellite data to map coral reefs in the South China Sea, Spie, February 21, 2007. 
6. South Korea Concludes That North Korea Sank Ship, Chosun Says, Bloomberg.com, May 7, 2010. 

Peter J Brown, a satellite journalist from the US state of Maine, was part of the team that worked on the 1991 PBS documentary, "Submarine: Steel Boats, Iron Men". 

(Copyright 2010 Asia Times Online (Holdings) Ltd. All rights reserved. Please contact us about sales, syndication andrepublishing.) 

Thursday, 15 October 2015

THE NUCLEAR POWERED SPACE SHUTTLE

If this ship goes a little bit over its 500,000 fps velocity, say 528,000 fps. This ship could make it to Mars in about 16 days.

Sunday, 11 October 2015

Did the United States Mount NERVA Engines On the S-IVB?

The official story is that the Saturn-V was a chemically fueled rocket. I believe that this is a lie. The S-IVB was the third stage of the Saturn-V rocket. Some of the S-IVB's were smashed into the moon for seismic studies. Others were turned into America's first official space station known as Skylab. There were also grander plans for this upper stage. The S-IVB was going to be used as a nuclear propelled space tug. So, America could build a moon base. It would utilize the NERVA engine to perform this mission. It might even have been able to make it to Mars and back. The Saturn-V was designed to be a full blown space ship designed to explore the solar system. 

APOLLO-12 "J002E3" COMES BACK FOR A VISIT IN SEPTEMBER OF 2002.


Five of the Saturn-V's S-IVB boosters are purportedly out in a heliocentric orbit. One of the S-IVB's "J002E3" came into to orbit the Earth during the build up of America's Iraq War. It left one month after President George Bush declared "Mission Accomplished" aboard the supercarrier U.S.S. Lincoln. The suspicious timing of the S-IVB's orbit lends credibility to the notion that Apollo was in reality a cover for a military mission. It's aim was to conquer space. If America covertly built bases on the moon and Mars it could use these bases for the testing of exotic weapons. It could also give elements of the American ruling class a place to run to in the event of a nuclear war. Control of space is the ace up the sleeve of the American ruling class. In the event of nuclear war they will just leave while the American people die on Earth. 
Five the S-IVB''s are just out there somewhere. 







Friday, 9 October 2015

WAS THE ROVER PROGRAM DEVELOPING A PLASMA CORE ENGINE?




When the NERVA program was cancelled in 1973 America had just begun to publicize development of vapor core reactors known as the Nuclear Furnace. After the NERVA program was canceled the reactor vessels were "cannibalized" to make way for experiments on nuclear pumped lasers using plasma core engines. The ROVER/NERVA program supposedly employed solid core reactors. Solid core reactors would be very limited in terms of what they could do in terms of their ISP. Vapor cores or even liquid core reactors have much higher potential ISP. I suspect that upper stages of Apollo utilized nuclear engines. The Phoebus NTR produced exactly the same amount of thrust as the J-2 rocket engine. So, I don't think that this was any accident. The NERVA engines could be "cannibalized" for this purpose because it was a plasma core rocket all along.


Thursday, 8 October 2015

The Staggering Real Cost Of The Blackbird SR-71



This is how much the plane cost just to develop and procure. This does not include how much it cost to operate the plane. It is an outrage when you think about it. I use the CPI, Gold and Silver as indicators of inflation. In the early 60's, gold was pegged to the dollar at 35 dollars per ounce. Silver up until 1964 was what all American money could be redeemed for at any bank or store. Silver is what our coinage consisted of and each paper dollar could be exchanged for a silver coin that contained .77 of a troy ounce silver. The CPI does not include silver or gold in its estimate of inflation. I average the three of them to come up with a more reasonable estimate of inflation. 



$600,000,000 for P&W to develop the engine (Rich & Janos, 207)
$700,000,000 Project Pluto Development (Dewar 65)
$5,000,000,000 to build 240 ramjets (Dewar 65)
$800,000,000 nuclear airplane (Dewar 65)
$8,000,000,000 for an operational wing. (Dewar 65)
$18,000,000 to develop the inlet (Rich & Janos, 211)
$161,000,000 for Lockheed to develop airframe (Rich & Janos, 227)
$1,088,000,000 to purchase 32 airframes
$1,040,000,000 for ANP development

Total $17,407,000,000
Cost per plane $543,968,750 in 1961 Dollars 
$134,940,000,000 Program Total 
$4,300,000,000 Per Plane CPI Inflation Adjusted Dollars
$7,053,533,987.5 Cost Per Plane in Silver Inflation Adjusted Dollars. 
$19,764,715,982.14 Cost Per Plane Gold Inflation Adjusted Dollars. 
$10,372,749,989.83 Cost Per Plane Averaging the CPI, Silver and Gold Inflation Adjusted Dollars. 

The Blackbird was a Billion Dollar Plane! The F-22 Raptor's 339 million dollar price tag seems almost reasonable in comparison to the 1960's $543,968,750 cost of the Blackbird. In CPI inflation adjusted dollars the Blackbird was over ten times the price of the Raptor. The Blackbird's successor the Aurora must have had a staggering price tag as well. 

Update 17 January 2016
I found some information on the cost of the ANP and PLUTO programs reading James Dewar's book TO THE END OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM. Using this information I have updated the totals. 

I believe that the cancellation of the Project PLUTO program, on the day of Kennedy's death, had something to do with the assassination of JFK. He was set to go after the contractors that worked on the ANP. They were looking at prison time. The Blackbird, if it had been used as planned as a bomber, would have changed the game in Vietnam as well. It is unlikely there would have been a Hanoi Hilton full of American pilots, if A-12's were doing the bulk of the bombing. The price of the Blackbird program was on par with that of the Apollo program, which was also a cover for a military program. A single Blackbird cost more than the yearly defense budget for the whole of the 1960's. The Space race was in reality a race to maintain preemptive strike superiority. Throughout the 1950's the U.S. maintained a program of "overflight" of the Soviet , utilizing Canberra bombers and U-2's. Ostensibly this program was "reconnaissance" in reality it was a psychological warfare campaign to show the Soviets that America could bomb them with impunity.  




Project PLUTO was the cover for the development of the Blackbird.


SOURCES: 

Dewar, James A. To the End of the Solar System: The Story of the Nuclear Rocket. Lexington, Ky.: U of Kentucky, 2004. Print.



http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/factsheets/DOENV_763.pdf

Pluto 700 Million and $5 Billion [1961 dollars] for 240 ramjets Dewar 65.

14 September 2018 Addition 


Project PLUTO was the cover for the development of the Blackbird. 













Tuesday, 6 October 2015

Secret American Space Planes to Dominate Planet Earth

Secret American Space Planes to Dominate Planet Earth

05.11.2002 08:00
The USA has been working on secret, new-generation space planes In the beginning of the 1990s, Russian intelligence uncovered the fact that the USA was testing a super-secret plane at one of its airbases. Russian agents attempted to see the new object with their own eyes and take pictures of it, but all attempts failed. The Americans provided incredible security for their secret weapon, and they tested the plane only at night. However, Russian agents managed to get some information about the new plane, which the USA calls Aurora, in honor of the Goddess of the Dawn.
The mystery aircraft is capable of flying very high, at a height of 40 and more kilometers. Even the latest pursuit planes cannot fly so high. The Aurora plane also possesses fantastic supersonic speed, the so-called 6M speed, as scientists call it. One M is equal to 340 meters a second. In other words, Aurora can fly at a speed of two kilometers a second, and this is not the limit. This speed is achieved due to extremely powerful engines and the special design of the plane's hull and wings.
The aircraft was constructed based on Stealth technology, which was selected by the American defense industry long ago. The technology poses great difficulties for both ground and air radar systems.
A picture of the real Aurora aircraft is even more rare than a picture of an UFO. So far, Russia has only one picture of the mysterious American plane. The picture was taken by a Russian intelligence officer at the moment when the Aurora plane was refueling in the air. Later, it became known that before the “flying tank of fuel” (KC-135 aircraft) refueled the Aurora, a spy plane flew across Russia from east to west and was not detected by any radar systems.
The Americans invented a new aircraft, which is almost like a rocket. The new plane was invented by American defense scientists with an eye towards the future. The most powerful pursuit planes can fly at heights of 35-40 kilometers. Russia is capable matching its strength with the USA in this respect. Russia has such aircraft: Su-2711, MiG-29, and MiG-31. However, these planes can only fly in the near-Earth environment, whereas the environment between the Earth’s atmosphere and space is still vacant, so to speak. That is why, the development of the near-Earth space environment weapon is so relevant for defense. Who gets there first becomes the winner.
Here, we are talking about totally new kinds of aircraft: spy planes, fighter planes, transport planes, ect. They will be able to fly from the atmosphere into space and then return to Earth. The Americans have been working on this kind of aircraft for years already, developing several “star wars” projects. The United States has been designing and testing such planes for a long time. They already have the X-33, X-34, X-37, and X-38 planes.
X-33: This supersonic aircraft was designed based upon up-to-date titanic alloys. It is equipped with oxygen-hydrogen jet engines. This plane can reach speeds up to 4,420 meters per second. Graphite and ceramic (thermostable) technologies are used in its engines. Some of this technology was either bought or stolen from Russia. The maximum flight height is 120 kilometers.
X-34: A more modern supersonic aircraft. It is equipped with unique electronic devices and has a special heat-shielding coating. One of its peculiar features is the fact that the plane takes off from an aircraft-carrier, which is also a plane, not a vessel. The X-34 can reach speeds up to 5,440 meters a second. The maximum height is up to 150 kilometers.
Supersonic aircraft of the X class can be both unmanned and piloted planes, with vertical and horizontal takeoffs. It was officially reported that such planes are meant to considerably reduce the amount of money spent on delivering cargo into space. At the present moment, one such delivery costs 22 thousand dollars per one kilo of cargo. These new aircraft will definitely serve defense purposes, such as launching military satellites into orbit. Supersonic space planes can also be equipped with super-powerful telescopes and other equipment. Scientists and engineers are developing ways to equip these planes with missiles, laser weapons, and so on.
In other words, America is working on the first ever space army, which would provide the United States with complete domination in near-Earth orbit. It will not be possible for any anti-missile defense complexes to hit such planes, as they will be completely out of reach. The American space army will be able to hit any target on planet Earth at any moment.
Soviet engineers tried to challenge the Americans and designed a unique aircraft called the Buran. Unfortunately, the aircraft proved to be unsuccessful, and competition with the USA failed. When military opposition between the USSR and the USA was over, the Buran became a part of an exhibition in Moscow’s Park of Culture. The first Soviet space aircraft became a dull memory of a bygone power and might-have-been hopes.
Major General Sergey Kolganov, an academician of the Russian Space Academy, said that the USA's work on the development of supersonic space aircraft poses yet another potential threat to Russia. “I doubt that Russia is ready to fight with these American space planes. Some of our anti-missile defense complexes can hit targets up to 100 kilometers high. However, these new American aircraft can fly higher. Russia has very good ideas for defense, I am certain of that. The Americans have not even dreamed about them. However, they are only ideas, nothing more. Our scientists are not working on any projects that might counteract the American space planes,” Kolganov said.

Thursday, 1 October 2015

J-58 WAS A DIRECT CYCLE NUCLEAR ENGINE


There are a lot of airplanes buried in the ground at AREA-51



Secret planes that helped America win the Cold War lie buried at Area 51
By KEITH ROGERS
REVIEW-JOURNAL
As big as football fields and deep enough to bury airplanes, the graves at Groom Lake lie scattered around the government's secret installation, 90 miles northwest of Las Vegas.
There are no headstones or markers to denote the final resting place for such high-tech aircraft as the predecessors to the F-117A Nighthawk stealth fighter jet and the SR-71 Blackbird spy plane.
But people who worked there and researchers who track aviation history and the government's so-called "black budget" programs say some planes that crashed and other experiments that failed were hauled to the bottom of 40-foot-deep holes and covered overnight with mounds of dirt.
One former Groom Lake worker, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said he watched while an earthmover spent a day in 1982 scraping out a burial site.
It was a massive excavation, he said. "They didn't dig that hole and put Martians or moon men in it."
He said the wreckage of a classified plane that was buried on the base was for months in what's called the "Scoot-N-Hide," a shed off a taxiway where secret planes are kept out of view of orbiting satellites.
"They put it on a flatbed truck and put it in a hangar. Then one day they scraped it off the flatbed into the hole and buried it," he said. "They attached a cable to the aircraft and just pulled it off. The thing was shattered like an egg."
According to aviation writer and historian Peter Merlin -- who has obtained declassified flight documents and interviewed personnel involved with Groom Lake programs spanning a period since 1955 -- more than a dozen aircraft are buried around the installation. Combined, the craft were worth at least $600 million and might be valued as much as $1 billion.
This practice of disposing secret, high-tech equipment continues today, he said. "We have no reason to believe it has stopped."
Because it is cloaked in secrecy by a presidential order, Air Force officials will not discuss what it acknowledges only as "the operating location near Groom Lake," which is widely known as Area 51, a 38,400-acre swath of desert along the dry lake bed.
Merlin said the equipment that now lies 40 feet beneath the surface represents cutting-edge technology that in its time kept the U.S. military and the nation's intelligence community ahead of foreign adversaries.
For example, three generations of high-flying spy planes -- U-2s, A-12s, and SR-71s -- have been demonstrated at Groom Lake, each becoming progressively superior to foreign forces. "Nobody ever shot down an A-12," he noted.
Even former Soviet bloc aircraft, such as the 1970s-vintage MiG-23, have been obtained by the U.S. intelligence community and tested at Groom Lake to see how U.S. planes and radar stack up against it, said Merlin, who writes for several aeronautical trade publications, including a newspaper for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base.
The 1982 burial site described by the former Groom Lake worker was near a gravel-pit road and system of trenches where secret documents and materials including drums of toxic coatings for stealth fighter jets were routinely burned for years. A lawsuit by former base workers alleged they had developed illnesses from toxic fumes, but the Air Force has declined to release documents regarding the disposal practice, citing national security concerns.
John Pike, director of GlobalSecurity.org -- a Washington, D.C.-area defense-policy organization, said "the notion that the Air Force is burying its mistakes at Groom Lake makes sense." It is patrolled by helicopters carrying doorgunners manning machine guns.
The Groom Lake graveyard, according to Merlin, includes:
• Several 1960s-vintage A-12s, predecessors of the fast, high-flying SR-71 Blackbird spy planes.
• Four U2s from the 1950s.
• An F-101 chase plane that crashed in 1965.
• Two Have Blue airframes that were used to demonstrate technology for the F-117A.
• Wreckage of a MiG-23 that crashed in 1984.
Merlin and three other sources who worked at the base said base officials wanted to retrieve one of the Have Blue airframes buried somewhere near the Groom Lake installation but were unable to find it.
He said there was a plan to bury a unique surveillance aircraft, Tacit Blue -- a white plane equipped with sensors and radar that could survive flying close to war zones -- but it was rescued and placed in the U.S. Air Force Museum in Ohio instead. Tacit Blue was tested at Groom Lake from 1982 to 1985, he said.
Not all once-secret planes from Groom Lake that crashed have been buried there, including the first production F-117A, tail No. 785, according to Merlin and others who worked at the base at the time.
On April 20, 1982, Lockheed test pilot Robert Riedenauer was at the controls of that plane when it cartwheeled wing over wing attempting to take off from a Groom Lake runway.
To this day neither Riedenauer nor Air Force officials can say where the ill-fated takeoff occurred -- but other sources who worked at the base as well as Merlin say that crash was indeed at the Groom Lake installation.
While Riedenauer can't talk about the crash location he spoke openly about how he escaped death that day, when miswired controls caused the craft to go down instead of up.
"I had four seconds to think about it," Riedenauer explained in an interview about his ride aboard the jet.
He said he spent the first two seconds trying to get the craft under control. "The third was reaching for handles to bail out, and the fourth was I realized the aircraft was inverted so it didn't make sense to bail out, so I started shutting down the engine and throttle."
Rescuers managed to save Riedenauer from a fire that flared up. They spent 20 minutes cutting him out of the cockpit. He would spend months in the hospital.
The wings of the $46 million plane were shattered. The plane was to have been the first of 59 stealth F-117As delivered to the Air Force.
Much of it, however, was salvaged and spared from burial, according to Merlin.
The damaged aircraft was returned to Palmdale, Calif., where it now sits on a pylon on display. The first preproduction F-117s have also been converted to displays. One of them, tail No. 780 is at Freedom Park at Nellis Air Force Base.
Bob Pepper, a spokesman for the F-117A stealth fighter jet unit at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico, said the policy for disposing of wrecked stealths is to store them temporarily at Holloman and then to follow the procedure for disposing other military aircraft.
The current procedure for disposing of Air Force planes developed from unclassified technology, according to Pike, is to take them to Davis-Monthan Air Force Base near Tucson, Ariz., where they are kept for parts, chopped up and melted down to recycle their aluminum and other metals.
"A stealth composite airplane is not the sort of thing that can be melted down to make pots and pans. You would want to dispose of them so they don't come back to haunt you," he said, explaining that the government's intention is to keep secret materials and components in a secure location so they can't be obtained by other countries.
One former base worker described the 1984 crash of a MiG-23 that ultimately ended up in the Groom Lake graveyard.
"I saw that thing explode," he said. "I was looking up at the sky. I thought, `God, these guys are going fast.'
"Then it was just like it disappeared. The plane came apart. The wings came off it and he punched out," he said, referring to the pilot's fatal bail-out.


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