Sunday, 29 April 2018

U2 SPY PLANE WASN'T HIT BY A MISSILE

U2 SPY PLANE WASN'T HIT BY A MISSILE
Reuter News Service
Published: Saturday, Oct. 12 1996 12:00 a.m. MDT
Summary
A former Soviet fighter pilot broke 36 years of silence Friday to reveal what he said was the true story of one of the hottest moments of the Cold War - the downing of U.S. agent Gary Powers' U2 spy plane. Igor Mentyukov told Trud newspaper his new Sukhoi Su-9 fighter was unarmed when he was sent over the Urals and ordered to ram the high-flying ``spy in the sky'' piloted by Powers. A former Soviet fighter pilot broke 36 years of silence Friday to reveal what he said was the true story of one of the hottest moments of the Cold War - the downing of U.S. agent Gary Powers' U2 spy plane.

Igor Mentyukov told Trud newspaper his new Sukhoi Su-9 fighter was unarmed when he was sent over the Urals and ordered to ram the high-flying "spy in the sky" piloted by Powers. He said he managed to overtake the U2 and "Powers' plane got into the slipstream of my Su-9. The airstreams whip past at 180 meters a second, plus the turning factor. It started to flip him over, his wings broke off. . . . It all happened by chance."

Mentyukov said Soviet generals, eager to satisfy Kremlin leader Nikita Khrushchev's misguided faith in Moscow's rocket defenses, covered up his extraordinary feat and insisted for three decades that the U2 was hit by a guided missile.

Worse, he said, the missile batteries actually fired at him after a mix-up over codes. They did destroy a MiG-19, which was itself hunting the Sukhoi, showing that Powers would have been killed if a rocket had hit his plane.

The downing of the U2 on the morning of May 1, 1960, provoked a sudden chill between the two superpowers.

Khrushchev used the incident, which exposed Washington's secret reconnaissance missions to the world, as the pretext for a series of angry outbursts that wrecked a Paris summit with President Dwight Eisenhower two weeks later.

U.S. commanders, who had believed that their U2s flew too fast and too high to be caught, were led to reconsider the value of manned nuclear bombers vs. intercontinental missiles.

Powers, working on contract for the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, was put on public trial in Moscow in August 1960 and jailed for 10 years for espionage. He was released in February 1962 in a spy exchange.

The unassuming Powers, who died in 1977, was always unable to give a clear account of how he was brought down. He said he felt an explosion, the U2 went into a spin and he ejected to safety. "Everywhere I looked was orange," he once recalled.

Mentyukov, who said he was later rewarded with "Saturn wristwatches and an order to shut up,"said the U.S. pilot was describing the sonic boom of the Sukhoi overtaking him from above and the flare of its jet engine.

Two other Su-9s had tried and failed to reach the 20,000-meter altitude of Powers' U2, but Mentyukov said he decided to push his plane, which was still new in service and not fully tried out, to its limits.

He had stopped in the Urals while transferring his brand-new Sukhoi to a new base when he was ordered to scramble against the intruder. His plane was not armed, but that made it much faster than the MiG-19s, then the mainstay of the Soviet fighter force.

Soviet commanders were apparently so frustrated with repeated U.S. photographic missions that the commander of air defense forces, Marshal Yevgeny Savitsky, known as "The Dragon," ordered Mentyukov to ram the U2.

"Savitsky knew I had no weapons system. And there was no chance of surviving a ramming," said Mentyukov, whose wife was pregnant at the time. "They told me: `Everything will be done.' There was no time for fine words."

Ironically, Mentyukov later gave Savitsky flying lessons. "I never held anything against him," he said. "We're military men."

Friday, 27 April 2018

PHEOBUS 2A AND THE ASPEN

The PHOEBUS 2A reached the needed power levels to propel the ASPEN on 26 June 1968 (NASA 1991). This was three years after Bussard's prediction for ROVER. He had predicted that ROVER would reach a power level of 4.9 Gigawatts by 1965 (Atomic Energy Commission, 1961). This could be a sign of a NASA misinformation campaign. This definitely shows that America had created a rocket engine that could put a pound of payload into orbit for $16.53 in July 1968 dollars or $118.20 in 2018 CPI inflation adjusted dollars (Dewar and Bussard, 2009). It would have even been cheaper using an all nuclear ASPEN. The ANP/NEPA goal was to build a supersonic plane that ran exclusively on nuclear power (The Comptroller General Of The United States, 1963). Therefore the technology was there to build the ASPEN and cheaply deploy defensive space weaponry in the form of lasers into orbit in 1968. This would not necessarily violate the Outer Space Treaty of 1967 because defensive lasers do not fall into the WMD category (Unoosa.org, 2018) . If an ASPEN was built before 1968 - there is ample reason to believe the needed power levels were reached before this - America probably put nuclear weapons into space under the CAMAL program. There are loop holes in this treaty. If, for example, the USA put an ORION into orbit, they could have put nuclear explosives in space that have a peaceful purpose (Dyson, 2003). Because they are used to propel the space craft. These charges could very easily be converted over to weapons purposes. 











Sources: 
Atomic Energy Commission (1961). ASPEN : AN AEROSPACE PLANE WITH NUCLEAR ENGINES. Los Alamos: University Of California, p.10.
http://lib-www.lanl.gov/cgi-bin/getfile?00384860.pdf
Comptroller General Of The United States (1963). REPORT TO THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES: REVIEW OF MANNED AIRCRAFT NUCLEAR PROPULSION PROGRAM ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION AND DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE. [online] Washington D.C., p.Comptroller General of the United States. Available at: https://fas.org/nuke/space/anp-gao1963.pdf [Accessed 29 Apr. 2018].
Dewar, J. and Bussard, R. (2009). The nuclear rocket. Burlington, Ont.: Apogee Books.
https://www.amazon.com/Nuclear-Rocket-Making-Peaceful-Prosperous/dp/189495999X/
Dyson, G. (2003). Project Orion. New York: Henry Holt.
https://www.amazon.com/Project-Orion-Story-Atomic-Spaceship/dp/0805072845
NASA (1991). ROVER NUCLEAR ROCKET ENGINE PROGRAM: OVERVIEW OF ROVER ENGINE TESTS FINAL REPORT. Huntsville, Alabama: NASA, p.70.
https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19920005899.pdf
Unoosa.org. (2018). Outer Space Treaty. [online] Available at: http://www.unoosa.org/oosa/en/ourwork/spacelaw/treaties/outerspacetreaty.html [Accessed 27 Apr. 2018].




Monday, 23 April 2018

APOLLO 12'S 2002-2003 REAPPEARANCE : THERE IS A MARS BASE


This animated gif shows the return of APOLLO-12. It returned after 911, orbited Earth, leaving shortly after George Bush declared MISSION ACCOMPLISHED. It left in between the launches of two Mars probes. The timing of this incident suggests there is a Mars Base. It also suggests that we were precipitously close to a nuclear war with Russia during this period. Readers of this blog know it is the position of this blog that Russia was responsible for 911. And, the attacks of 911 were the Russian response to America's aggressive policies and actions during the 1990's. During this period America pushed "economic reforms" that killed upwards of 25 Million Russians, instigated a civil war in the Caucus Region that murdered hundreds of thousands of Russians, internally displacing millions more and sank the Kursk submarine. After 911 America followed a policy of systemically dismantling all former Soviet Client states (Iraq, Libya, Syria and Yemen) or at least attempted to do so. The return of Apollo 12 shows that space has already been weaponized.  

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Wednesday, 18 April 2018

FISH SCALES OR RADIATION BURNS? THEY LOOK THE SAME.

The photos above shoe the progression of radioactive burns from right to left. 





SOURCES AND QUOTES: 
Vulliamy, E. (1994). DYING FOR AN AMERICAN DREAMLAND. The Observer, p.15.
He lost weight rapidly, developed rashes and weeping sores, his stomach swelled, his face peeled, his skin began to crack and bleed. He was cold even in the sweltering desert summer. When he died he was almost blind.

Leiby, R. (1997). Secrets Under the Sun; Out in the Nevada desert is Area 51, a military base so hush-hush it does not officially exist. Tell that to the widows of the men who died there. The Washington Post.
But if the site stokes distrust, it should be for something more down to earth. Mr. Bush's order effectively lets the Air Force flout environmental laws without a public accounting. That is understandably upsetting to a group of former workers and two widows represented by Jonathan Turley, a George Washington University law professor who filed suit in 1994, claiming that exposure to toxic materials illegally burned on the grounds had caused gruesome skin rashes and respiratory ailments.


The New York Times (2003). The Truth Is Out There, but It's Classified. [online] p.Pg. A14. Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2003/09/27/.../the-truth-is-out-there-but-it-s-classified.html [Accessed 18 Apr. 2018].
But if the site stokes distrust, it should be for something more down to earth. Mr. Bush's order effectively lets the Air Force flout environmental laws without a public accounting. That is understandably upsetting to a group of former workers and two widows represented by Jonathan Turley, a George Washington University law professor who filed suit in 1994, claiming that exposure to toxic materials illegally burned on the grounds had caused gruesome skin rashes and respiratory ailments

RADIOACTIVE PLANES BURIED AT AREA-51

Burial pits located to the left of Hangar-18 in the photograph below are used to dispose of radioactive waste generated from the E-MAD/Hotshop section of the hangar. The nuclear powered SR-71's are buried in the ground near the base as large as football fields. 




SOURCES:

Turley, J. (2000). SYMPOSIUM ON STATUTORY INTERPRETATION: Through a Looking Glass Darkly: National Security and Statutory Interpretation. SMU Law Review, [online] 53(1), pp.206-248. Available at: https://scholar.smu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1764&context=smulr [Accessed 18 Apr. 2018].

On September 9, 1994, the court granted the motion and placed the identities of the workers under court protection. The workers then proceeded to file a complaint under RCRA with affidavits submitted under seal, alleging that government officials and contractors were engaging in extremely harmful hazardous waste operations under the cloak of secrecy at Area 51. In the first suit against a "black facility," the workers signed sworn statements that the military was burning large quantities of hazardous wastes in trenches the size of football fields. According to the workers, these trenches were regularly filled with 55-gallon drums, covered with combustible material, doused with jet fuel and set ablaze. It is a crime to burn hazardous wastes in an open pit or trench. n18 It is also a crime to dispose of, store, or transport hazardous wastes without a permit under RCRA. This criminal conduct also included the shipment of hazardous wastes by contractors from California to illegally burn or buy at Area 51 without permits or other basic RCRA conditions. Workers were prepared to testify under oath that federal officials openly acknowledged the criminal acts committed at the facility and the use of national security laws to prevent their detection.

Rogers, K. (25 March 2001). Secret planes that helped America win the Cold War lie buried at Area 51. Las Vegas Review-Journal.

Secret planes that helped America win the Cold War lie buried at Area 51
By KEITH ROGERS
REVIEW-JOURNAL
As big as football fields and deep enough to bury airplanes, the graves at Groom Lake lie scattered around the government's secret installation, 90 miles northwest of Las Vegas.
There are no headstones or markers to denote the final resting place for such high-tech aircraft as the predecessors to the F-117A Nighthawk stealth fighter jet and the SR-71 Blackbird spy plane.
But people who worked there and researchers who track aviation history and the government's so-called "black budget" programs say some planes that crashed and other experiments that failed were hauled to the bottom of 40-foot-deep holes and covered overnight with mounds of dirt.
One former Groom Lake worker, who spoke on condition of anonymity, said he watched while an earthmover spent a day in 1982 scraping out a burial site.
It was a massive excavation, he said. "They didn't dig that hole and put Martians or moon men in it."
He said the wreckage of a classified plane that was buried on the base was for months in what's called the "Scoot-N-Hide," a shed off a taxiway where secret planes are kept out of view of orbiting satellites.
"They put it on a flatbed truck and put it in a hangar. Then one day they scraped it off the flatbed into the hole and buried it," he said. "They attached a cable to the aircraft and just pulled it off. The thing was shattered like an egg."
According to aviation writer and historian Peter Merlin -- who has obtained declassified flight documents and interviewed personnel involved with Groom Lake programs spanning a period since 1955 -- more than a dozen aircraft are buried around the installation. Combined, the craft were worth at least $600 million and might be valued as much as $1 billion.
This practice of disposing secret, high-tech equipment continues today, he said. "We have no reason to believe it has stopped."
Because it is cloaked in secrecy by a presidential order, Air Force officials will not discuss what it acknowledges only as "the operating location near Groom Lake," which is widely known as Area 51, a 38,400-acre swath of desert along the dry lake bed.
Merlin said the equipment that now lies 40 feet beneath the surface represents cutting-edge technology that in its time kept the U.S. military and the nation's intelligence community ahead of foreign adversaries.
For example, three generations of high-flying spy planes -- U-2s, A-12s, and SR-71s -- have been demonstrated at Groom Lake, each becoming progressively superior to foreign forces. "Nobody ever shot down an A-12," he noted.
Even former Soviet bloc aircraft, such as the 1970s-vintage MiG-23, have been obtained by the U.S. intelligence community and tested at Groom Lake to see how U.S. planes and radar stack up against it, said Merlin, who writes for several aeronautical trade publications, including a newspaper for the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base.
The 1982 burial site described by the former Groom Lake worker was near a gravel-pit road and system of trenches where secret documents and materials including drums of toxic coatings for stealth fighter jets were routinely burned for years. A lawsuit by former base workers alleged they had developed illnesses from toxic fumes, but the Air Force has declined to release documents regarding the disposal practice, citing national security concerns.
John Pike, director of GlobalSecurity.org -- a Washington, D.C.-area defense-policy organization, said "the notion that the Air Force is burying its mistakes at Groom Lake makes sense." It is patrolled by helicopters carrying doorgunners manning machine guns.
The Groom Lake graveyard, according to Merlin, includes:
• Several 1960s-vintage A-12s, predecessors of the fast, high-flying SR-71 Blackbird spy planes.
• Four U2s from the 1950s.
• An F-101 chase plane that crashed in 1965.
• Two Have Blue airframes that were used to demonstrate technology for the F-117A.
• Wreckage of a MiG-23 that crashed in 1984.
Merlin and three other sources who worked at the base said base officials wanted to retrieve one of the Have Blue airframes buried somewhere near the Groom Lake installation but were unable to find it.
He said there was a plan to bury a unique surveillance aircraft, Tacit Blue -- a white plane equipped with sensors and radar that could survive flying close to war zones -- but it was rescued and placed in the U.S. Air Force Museum in Ohio instead. Tacit Blue was tested at Groom Lake from 1982 to 1985, he said.
Not all once-secret planes from Groom Lake that crashed have been buried there, including the first production F-117A, tail No. 785, according to Merlin and others who worked at the base at the time.
On April 20, 1982, Lockheed test pilot Robert Riedenauer was at the controls of that plane when it cartwheeled wing over wing attempting to take off from a Groom Lake runway.
To this day neither Riedenauer nor Air Force officials can say where the ill-fated takeoff occurred -- but other sources who worked at the base as well as Merlin say that crash was indeed at the Groom Lake installation.
While Riedenauer can't talk about the crash location he spoke openly about how he escaped death that day, when miswired controls caused the craft to go down instead of up.
"I had four seconds to think about it," Riedenauer explained in an interview about his ride aboard the jet.
He said he spent the first two seconds trying to get the craft under control. "The third was reaching for handles to bail out, and the fourth was I realized the aircraft was inverted so it didn't make sense to bail out, so I started shutting down the engine and throttle."
Rescuers managed to save Riedenauer from a fire that flared up. They spent 20 minutes cutting him out of the cockpit. He would spend months in the hospital.
The wings of the $46 million plane were shattered. The plane was to have been the first of 59 stealth F-117As delivered to the Air Force.
Much of it, however, was salvaged and spared from burial, according to Merlin.
The damaged aircraft was returned to Palmdale, Calif., where it now sits on a pylon on display. The first preproduction F-117s have also been converted to displays. One of them, tail No. 780 is at Freedom Park at Nellis Air Force Base.
Bob Pepper, a spokesman for the F-117A stealth fighter jet unit at Holloman Air Force Base in New Mexico, said the policy for disposing of wrecked stealths is to store them temporarily at Holloman and then to follow the procedure for disposing other military aircraft.
The current procedure for disposing of Air Force planes developed from unclassified technology, according to Pike, is to take them to Davis-Monthan Air Force Base near Tucson, Ariz., where they are kept for parts, chopped up and melted down to recycle their aluminum and other metals.
"A stealth composite airplane is not the sort of thing that can be melted down to make pots and pans. You would want to dispose of them so they don't come back to haunt you," he said, explaining that the government's intention is to keep secret materials and components in a secure location so they can't be obtained by other countries.
One former base worker described the 1984 crash of a MiG-23 that ultimately ended up in the Groom Lake graveyard.
"I saw that thing explode," he said. "I was looking up at the sky. I thought, `God, these guys are going fast.'
"Then it was just like it disappeared. The plane came apart. The wings came off it and he punched out," he said, referring to the pilot's fatal bail-out.

Tuesday, 17 April 2018

IS THE OKC MEMORIAL A DECORATIVE VERSION OF THE DOME ON RUNIT ISLAND?


This is how the United States dealt with the radioactive soil produced in some of their nuclear tests conducted in the Pacific Ocean. The radioactive soil was collected, buried and capped with concrete. 



This is the OKC Memorial. It was creatively graded and decorated with plenty of concrete structures in order to hide the residual left over radioactive soils at the site. Most of the wreckage of the Murrah Building was hauled to a guarded landfill. 

These two photos give you a sense of the grading that has taken place at the bombing site. The grassy hills slope up from the reflecting pool. I would say there is probably a 15 to 20 foot difference in elevation from pool level to the top of the hill. The construction of the site took place in such a way that all radioactive debris could be hauled off and the left overs could be buried beneath the concrete or the beneath the slope of the lawn. 

Sunday, 15 April 2018

THE WAR OF ATTRITION IN SYRIA

The American Ruling Class's plan in Syria is to slowly degrade Syria's capabilities, using false flag attacks as a pretext to justify the removal of Assad. This war is about great power rivalry. It is about removing all Russian influence from the Middle East. American oligarchs want complete control of the world's oil. "Chemical weapons" are the incubator babies of 2018.

This resource war is a matter of choice. Because American Oligarchs have chosen to suppress the development of nuclear energy technology that could be used to replace hydrocarbon energy sources.






If America were to develop vapor core reactor technology. Six nuclear reactors could produce all of the electricity America needs. With more reactors we could use the Haber-Bosch process to produce all the fuels needed for transportation and the waste heat could be used to power desalination plants for fresh drinking water. 


Saturday, 7 April 2018

http://newsok.com/article/2507182

"Expert" Says Blast Was Neutron Bomb

Mick Hinton Published: July 1, 1995 12:00 AM CDT Updated: July 1, 1995 12:00 AM CDT

State Rep. Charles Key maintained his stance Friday that the federal government is not being forthright about the April 19 bombing, as he came forward with self-described experts with their own theories.

Key's news conference followed his Thursday night forum in the state House, which several victims and their family members angrily left.

Galen Winsor, who said he has 43 years of experience in the nuclear industry building weapons, said Friday he's convinced the Oklahoma City bomb was a neutron bomb. Federal investigators say it was a 4,800-pound mixture of fertilizer and fuel oil.

Winsor also said he was convinced that President Clinton and Attorney General Janet Reno were aware of the bombing before it occurred.

Key said Winsor's opinion about Clinton and Reno was "just that," although he said that should not diminish his expertise about a neutron bomb.

Winsor challenged the media to demand to see "ultra-violet light spectrums" of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building just prior to April 19 and shortly afterwards. He said it would show the amount of radiation.

Ted Gunderson, who said he was a 28-year FBI veteran, said he was convinced that it was more than ammonium nitrate used in the bombing. He did concede that he has no real expertise in the area but believed other experts who have doubts.

He accused the "mainstream media" of being duped into telling the government's story.

Retired Gen. Benton Partin said he thinks there was more than one explosion. He said although he had never toured the bomb site, he could tell from pictures that there was more than one blast.

Key has urged that House Speaker Glen Johnson call for a special committee to investigate the bombing.

Gov. Frank Keating and House Minority Leader Larry Ferguson, both Republicans like Key, said such a committee would be useless.

Johnson said Key should refer information he might have about the bombing to the "proper investigative authorities. " BIOG: NAME:

Archive ID: 616346

Wednesday, 4 April 2018

THIS HAPPENED SAME MONTH OF RUSSIAN TACTICAL NUKE STRIKE ON THE PRESIDENTIAL LIMOUSINE AT WTC 93

The Times
May 13, 1993, Thursday
The land the mafia stole
Andrew Jennings

Murder, revolution and missing millions ... the astonishing story of Chechenia
The Royal Mint has extricated itself from a contract signed earlier this year to make gold and silver coins for a govern-ment dominated by gangsters. The deal, made in February with Chechenia, a tiny republic in the northern foothills of the Caucasus mountains which has declared independence from Russia, was formally approved by the Foreign Office.

The contract with the Mint was negotiated by Ruslan Utsyev only days before he and his brother Nasabek were shot dead in their Marylebone penthouse. Two men have been charged with murder.
The murders have been linked to more killings in their homeland in the past few weeks. Investigators in the Chechen capital, Grozny, claim that they are linked to the theft of hundreds of millions of dollars, the proceeds of the sale of oil, the country's only asset. After nearly four centuries of repelling Russian attempts to subjugate them, the Chechens de-clared independence a month after the failed coup of August 1991. The appearance was of a nation tasting freedom for the first time. As a businessman claimed to me in Grozny: ''We firmly believed they would become the 'Kuwait of the Caucasus'.''

Eighteen months later the majority of Chechnia's million citizens are poverty-stricken. The country is on the brink of massive bloodletting.

After the August coup, leaders of many of the Chechen gangs in Moscow returned south to their homeland bringing with them their own fighters and weapons.

These ''volunteers'' who helped oust the old guard were fighting not for liberation but for the imposition of an even more corrupt regime.

One of the most impressive contributors to Chechnia's cautious press is historian and political analyst Timur Musaev. He claims: ''The new Mafia financed the movement which overthrew the old regime. They used the slogans of democ-racy to overthrow the old mob. It was in their interest to force change so they could take power.''

Critics allege that mafia groups have taken control of the council of ministers, the police and the oil ministry. Oil pro-duction has been increased and exported, some to Russia but much of it, for the first time, to the West.

Who has taken the oil and the money is no secret. One minister is alleged to have banked at least $11 million. One of the government advisers who traded in oil was the London murder victim Ruslan Utsyev.

The Chechen parliament has set up a commission to find the money. One of its members, Vakha Arsanov, told me: ''There has been theft on a grand scale.''

The investigators were being helped by an official in the oil ministry, Gennady Sanko. Two weeks after the London killings, Sanko was gunned down on his way to work. Arsanov says: ''He gave us some information about the stolen oil, he promised to give us some very serious information very soon but unfortunately he didn't have time.''

Chechnia's leader is former Soviet air force general, president Dzhokhar Dudaev. It is impossible to tell whether he is implicated in his mafia government or oblivious to their crimes. His answers to straightforward questions are bizarre.

On the missing oil money he says: ''Nothing has gone anywhere. It's all working in the interests of the state. How is a government secret. You could say it's vanished but in nature nothing disappears.''
The streets around his presidential palace are lined with new Mercedes, BMWs and Cadillacs. One day I spotted a Rolls-Royce and a Ferrari Testarossa. Everybody in Chechnia knows that these cars are bought with the proceeds of huge frauds on Moscow banks.

The president claims: ''These prestige cars show we are making economic progress, they show the wealth of our nation. It says something that our lads, our Chechen people, have learnt how to function creatively under the new conditions.'' In a bid to gain British recognition for his regime, he came to London in October last year. He lunched at the Commons, with Mr Den Dover, the Tory MP for Chorley, who was seeking to arrange contracts for British companies in exchange for oil and Chechnia's London lawyer, Mr Gerrard Neale, the former Tory MP for North Cornwall. That afternoon Dudaev was received at the DTI. The Foreign Office sent an official.

In the last three weeks the Chechen people, outraged at the theft of their wealth, have begun daily mass demonstrations in Grozny. In response Dudaev has sacked the parliament ending the oil enquiry dismissed his government, ordered a curfew and now rules by decree.

The latest murder came 24 hours after we left Chechnia. We had been helped by a local journalist, Dimitri Krikoriants, who had exposed much of the scandal. Late at night he was machine gunned at his front door.

Andrew Jennings
The author reported The Theft of a Nation for ITV's Storyline, tonight.

THE OKC BOMBING TOOK PLACE TWO YEARS TO THE DAY DUDAYEV DECLARED DIRECT RULE OVER CHECHNYA


The Times
April 19, 1993, Monday
Direct rule in Chechenia
Anne McElvoy

Moscow: General Dzhokar Dudayev, the leader of the southern Russian republic of Chechenia, dissolved the govern-ment and parliament and imposed direct presidential rule after street protests over falling living standards.
Speaking to a rally of 30,000 supporters in the capital Grozny, he also imposed a curfew. Demonstrators called on him to resign.